A large variety of fruits are grown in diverse agro-climatic zones in India. According to the Indian Horticultural Database 2009 of the National Horticulture Board (under the Union ministry of agriculture), total production of fruits in the country in 2008-09 was 68.47 million tonnes, from an area of 6.1 million hectares. Area under fruit trees and total production in 2008-09 was around 2.3 times the figures for 1991-92.
The main fruits grown in the country are bananas and mangoes, accounting for 38% and 19% of total fruit production respectively. Other major fruits are citrus fruits, papaya, guava, grapes, pineapple, sapota, pomegranate and litchi.
Major plantation crops are coconut (10 million metric tonnes in 2008-09), cashewnut (0.7 million metric tonnes), arecanut and cocoa.
In terms of production, the major fruit-producing states are Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra, accounting for 19% and 18% of total production respectively, followed by Gujarat, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Kerala, Assam, J&K, Orissa and Punjab.
Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh are the leading cashewnut producing states, followed by Orissa and Kerala. Kerala is the leading producer of arecanut, coconut and cocoa.
The following table shows major varieties and production zones of the major fruits.
|Fruit||Major varieties||Main fruit producing zones|
|Banana||Dwarf Cavendish, Robusta, Rasthali, Amritpant, Thellachakrakeli, Karpoora Poovan, Chakrakeli, Monthan Yenagu Bontha (in AP); Assam Jahaji (Dwarf Cavendish), Borjahaji (Robusta), Honda, Manjahaji, Chinia (Manohar), Kanchkol, Chini Champa, Bhimkol, Attikol, Jatikol, Digjowa, Kulpait, Bharat Moni (in Assam); Bihar Dwarf Cavendish, Alpon, Chinia, Chini Champa, Malbhog, Muthia, Kothia and Gauria (in Bihar); Gujarat Dwarf Cavendish, Lacatan, Harichal (Lokhandi) Gandevi Selection, Karnataka Dwarf Cavendish, Robusta, Poovan, Rasabale, (Rasthali), Monthan & Elakkibale (in Gujarat); Kerala Nendran (Plantain), Palayankodan (Poovan), Rasthali, Monthan & Red Banana (in Kerala); Maharashtra Dwarf Cavendish, Basrai, Robusta, Lal Velchi, Safed Velchi, Rajeli Nendran (in Maharashtra); Tamil Nadu Virupakshi, Robusta, Red Banana, Poovan, Rasthali, Nendran, Monthan, Karpuravalli, Sakkai, Peyan and Matti (in TN); Champa, Mortman Rasthali, Amrit Sagar, Giant Governor, Lacatan, Orissa & Monthan (in West Bengal & Orissa)||Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Sikkim, Bihar, West Bengal, Maharashtra (Jalgaon, Ahmednagar, Dhule, Nanded, Parbhani), Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh (East Godavari, West Godavari), Kurnool, Cuddapah, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala|
|Lime/Lemon||Acid lime (sour lime, Mexican lime, keylime, West Indian lime) Pramalini, Vikram, Chakradhari, PKM 1, Selection 49, Seedless lime, Tahiti (Persian) lime; Mithachikna and Mithotra (sweet lime); Eureka, Lisbon, Villafranca, Lucknow Seedless, Kagzi Kalan Nepali Oblong (Assam lemon), Nepali Round and Pant Lemon 1 (lemon)||Gujarat (Ahmedabad, Kheda, Mehsana, Bhavnager), Maharashtra (Pune, Satara, Wardha, Sholapur, Akola, Nagpur, Beed, Aurangabad), Karnataka (Kodagu, Hassan, Bijapur), Tamil Nadu (Dindigul, Trichy), Rajasthan (Jaipur, Alwar, Bharatpur)|
|Mosambi||Blood Red, Mosambi and Satgudi||Maharashtra (Ahmednagar, Aurangabad, Jalgaon, Amravati, Pune), Karnataka (Kodagu, Bijapur, Chikmagalore), Andhra Pradesh (Vijayawada, Ananathapur, Nelgonda, Rangareddy), Rajasthan (Shri Ganganagar, Jhalawada, Kota), Punjab (Firozpur, Faridkot, Hoshiarpur)|
|Orange (mandarin)||Specific cultivars of mandarins are cultivated in different regions. For example, Coorg manadarin is typical to Coorg and Wynad regions of Karnataka, whereas Nagpur mandarin is ideally suited to Vidarbha region. Similarly, Darjeeling mandarin, Khasi and Sumithra mandarins are basically adapted to Darjeeling, Khasi hills and Assam respectively. Of many exotic introductions, Kinnow mandarin has acclimatised very well in semiarid, irrigated zones of Punjab.||Maharashtra (Nagpur, Akola, Amravati, Wardha), Rajasthan (Jhalawad, Kota), Karnataka (Chikmagalor, Kodagu, Hassan), Madhya Pradesh (Chhindwada, Mandsaur, Betul, Ujjain, Shajapur), Nagaland (Wokha, Tuensang), Mizoram (Aizawl), Tamil Nadu (Dindigul, Salem, Nilgiris), West Bengal (Darjeeling), Assam (Tinsukia, NC Hills, Karbi Anglong), Tripura, Meghalaya ( East & West Khasi, RiBhoi, Garo Hills, Jointia Hills)|
|Grapes||Thomson Seedless, Sonaka, Anabeshahi, Perlette, Bangalore Blue, Pusa Seedless, Beauty Seedless, Arkavati, Arkahans, Arkakanchan, Arkaneelmani, TaseGanesh, Sharad Seedless, Dilkush etc||Andhra Pradesh (Rangareddy, Medak, Ananthapur), Tamil Nadu, Karnataka (Bangalore, Kolar, Bijapur), Maharashtra (Sangli, Satara, Nasik, Sholapur, Pune, Ahmednagar), Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan (Jhalwad)|
|Guava||Allahabad Safeda, Lucknow-49, Chittidar, Nagpur Seedless, Bangalore, Dharwar, Akra Mridula, Arka Amulya, Harijha, Hafshi, Allahabad Surkha, CISHG1, CISHG2, CISHG3 etc||Andhra Pradesh (East Godavari, West Godavari, Guntur, Krishna, Ananthapur, Medak, Khammam), Madhya Pradesh & Chhattisgarh (Raipur, Durg, Jabalpur), Gujarat (Bhavnagar, Ahmedabad), Bihar, Maharashtra (Satara, Beed, Pune, Ahmednagar, Aurangabad, Amravati), Uttar Pradesh (Allahabad, Farrukhabad, Aligarh, Badaun), Karnataka (Bangalore, Kolar, Shimoga, Dharwar),Tamil Nadu (Mudurai, Dindigul, Salem), Orissa|
|Litchi||Shahi, Rose Scented, China, Kasba, Purbi, Early Bedana, Late Bedana (Bihar); Rose Scented, Dehradun, Calcuttia (Uttar Pradesh); Bombay Green, Kalyani Selection (West Bengal); Muzaffarpur, Dehradun, Seedless, Late Bedana (Punjab)||Uttranchal (Dehradun, Pithauragarh, Nainital, Haridwar), West Bengal (Murshidabad, 24 Paraganas), Bihar (Muzzafarpur, East Champaran, Samastipur, Vaisali, Bhagalpur), Assam (Kamrup, Sonitpur, Bongaigaon), Punjab (Gurdaspur, Ropar, Hoshiarpur), Uttar Pradesh (Saharanpur), Jharkhand, Tripura|
|Mango||Banganapalli, Suvarnarekha, Neelum and Totapuri (AP); Bombay Green, Chausa, Dashehari, Fazli, Gulabkhas, Kishen Bhog, Himsagar, Zardalu and Langra (Bihar); Kesar, Alphonso, Rajapuri, Jamadar, Totapuri, Neelum, Dashehari and Langra (Gujarat); Chausa, Dashehari, Langra and Fazli (Haryana); Chausa, Dashehari and Langra (HP); Alphonso, Totapuri, Banganapalli, Pairi, Neelum and Mulgoa (Karnataka); Alphonso, Bombay Green, Dashehari, Fazli, Langra and Neelum (Madhya Pradesh); Alphonso, Kesar and Pairi (Maharashtra); Chausa, Dashehari and Malda (Punjab); Bombay Green, Chausa, Dashehari and Langra (Rajasthan); Alphonso, Totapuri, Banganapalli and Neelum (TN); Bombay Green, Chausa, Dashehari and Langra (UP); Fazli, Gulabkhas, Himsagar, Kishenbhog, Langra and Bombay Green (WB)||Jammu & Kashmir (Jammu, Kathwa, Udhampur), Punjab (Gurdaspur, Hoshiarpur, Ropar), Uttaranchal (Almora, Nainital, Dehradun), Uttar Pradesh (Saharanpur, Bulandshahar, Lucknow, Faizabad, Varanasi), Haryana (Karnal, Kurukshetra), Bihar, Madhya Pradesh (Rewa, Satna, Jabalpur,), Chhattisgarh (Raipur, Bastar, Durg, Bilaspur, Ramnandgaon, Rajgari), Maharashtra (Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg, Raigarh), Gujarat (Bhavnagar, Surat, Valsad, Junagarh, Mehsana, Khera), West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh (Krishna, East & West Godavari, Khamman, Vijayanagar), , Orissa (Dhankamal, Ganjam, Korapu, Puri), Kerala (Calicut, Cannanore), Karnataka (Kolar, Bangalore Tumkur) Tamil Nadu|
|Papaya||Honey Dew, Coorg Honey Dew, Washingtan, Pusa Delicious, Pusa Majesty, Pusa Dwarf, Pusa Giant Co. 1 to Co. 7, Surya, Pusa Pusa Nanha, Pink Flesh Sweet, Pant 1 Sunrise Solo, Taiwan etc||Andhara Pradesh (Cuddapah, Medak, Kurnool, Rangareddy), Gujarat (Kheda, Ahmedabad, Jamnagar), Orissa, Maharashtra (Sangli, Satara, Pune, Nasik, Sholapur, Nagpur, Amravati), Karnataka (Shimoga, Chitradurga, Mysore, Belgaum, Hassan), Madhya Pradesh (Dhar, Khandwa, Bilaspur, Ratlam, Guna), West Bengal (North 24 Paraganas, Hoogly), Assam (Nagaon, Darrang, Karbi Anglong)|
|Pineapple||Giant Kew, Queen, Kew, Mauritius, Charlotte Rothchild, Jaldhup Desi, Lakhat, etc||Karnataka (Shimoga, North & South Kannada, Chikmagalore), Kerala (Ernakulam), Nagaland (Kohima, Zunheboto), West Bengal (North Dinajpur, Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri), Assam (Nagaon, Kamrup, Karbi Anglong), Bihar, Manipur (Thoubal, Churchandpur, Imphal East), Meghalya (RiBhoi, East Khasi, Garo Hills)|
|Pomegranate||Maharashtra (Solapur, Sangli, Nashik, Ahmednagar, Pune, Dhule, Aurangabad, Satara, Osmanabad, Latur), Karnataka (Bijapur and Bagalkot), Gujarat, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana|
|Sapota||Pala, Kirtibarthi, Cricket Ball, Dwarapudi and Guthi Jonavalasa (AP); Kalipatti, Bhuripatti, Piilipatti, Dhola Diwani, Jhumakhia and Cricket Ball (Gujarat); Kalipatti, Cricket Ball, and Murraba (Maharashtra); Kalipatti, Cricket Ball, Kirtibarthi, DHS 1 and DHS 2 (Karnataka); Guthi, Kirthibarthi, Pala, Co 1, Co 2 and PKM 1 (Tamil Nadu)||Andhra Pradesh (East & West Godavari, Krishna, Guntur, Kurnool, Medak), Gujarat (Valsad, Surat, Kheda, Bhavnagar), Karnataka (Belgaum, Dharwar, Chikmagalore, Shimoga, Hassan), West Bengal (South 24 Paraganas, Midnapur), Maharashtra and Orissa|
Source: Indian Horticultural Database 2009